Multicomponent mixture

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For a multicomponent mixture, we designate each species with lower-case Greek letters , , , etc.

Basic Definitions

Mass basis

  • = mass concentration of species
  • = mass density of solution
  • = mass fraction of species
  • = Convective mass flux of species
  • = velocity of species

Mole basis

  • = molar concentration of species
  • = molar density of solution
  • = mole fraction of species
  • = Convective molar flux of species
  • = velocity of species

The relationship between molar density and mass density is the molar mass , or

Algebraic relationships

  • : The mass fractions of all the components must sum to 1.
  • : The mole fractions of all the components must sum to 1.

Velocity in a multicomponent mixture

If a system is comprised of two or more components, both a mass average velocity and a mole average velocity can be defined.

Mass basis

where is the mass fraction of species and is the velocity of species . The summation is over all the species that make up the system.

Mole basis

where is the mole fraction of species and is the velocity of species .